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Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Review of Diagnosis and Management

Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Review of Diagnosis and Management

Teaser: 

Neil Pugashetti,1 Shabbir M.H. Alibhai,3 Stanley A. Yap,1,2

1Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA.
2Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, VA Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, CA, USA.
3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the large majority of newly diagnosed bladder tumors and represents a significant burden to both patients and the healthcare system. Although the initial standard treatment for all non-muscle-invasive tumors is surgical resection, there exist a wide variety of both surgical and medical treatment modalities based upon the tumor's specific stage and grade. Ensuring a proper diagnosis is key, and management should be tailored to the individual in order to reduce cancer recurrence and prevent progression of disease.
Key Words: Bladder cancer, non-muscle-invasive, diagnosis, treatment.

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Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer consists of papillary tumors (Ta), tumors invading the submucosal lamina propria (T1), and flat lesions known as carcinoma in situ (CIS).
Proper management is key given the significant risk of tumor recurrence or progression to muscle-invasive disease.
Many treatment modalities exist including transurethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy, intravesical immunotherapy, and radical cystectomy; treatment choice depends on a variety of factors including tumor stage and grade.
The gold standard for the complete work-up of hematuria is office cystoscopy and imaging of the upper urinary tract.
Initial standard treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors is TURBT; at the time of resection, sampling of muscle surrounding the lesion is important to accurately assess depth of invasion.
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Pediatric diaper rashes: Getting to the 'bottom' of things

Pediatric diaper rashes: Getting to the 'bottom' of things

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim one non-certified credit per hour for this non-certified educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/mainpro-manual
Teaser: 

Jacky Lo1, Joseph M. Lam, MD, FRCSC2
1Medical student, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
2Clinical Assistant Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Dermatology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Abstract
Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin conditions seen in the pediatric population and can cause significant distress for infants and their families. While many diaper rashes can resolve with simple treatments, having a thorough understanding of different diaper lesions can help rule out more serious conditions, guide treatment and alleviate some of the caregivers' anxiety. The following review article will provide an overview of select common and uncommon diaper eruptions.
Key Words: diaper dermatitis, pediatric, diaper rash, treatment.

Why Are Physicians Still Prescribing Sulfonylureas as First Choice for Older Diabetic Adults?

Why Are Physicians Still Prescribing Sulfonylureas as First Choice for Older Diabetic Adults?

Teaser: 

Dr.Michael Gordon Michael Gordon, MD, MSc, FRCPC, Medical Program Director, Palliative Care, Baycrest Geriatric Health Care System, Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus is very prevalent in the older population. It is one of the important causes of vascular problems which may play a role in the development of dementia, especially of the mixed variety. There has been much progress in the potential medications that can help promote successful glucose control and address the other metabolic correlates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sulfonylureas should be used rarely and very carefully in older especially frail individuals because of their inherent risks. Getting physicians to change their prescribing practices in this frail elderly diabetic population is an important challenge to educators and drug program administrators.
Key Words: diabetes mellitus, sulfonylureas, diabetic management, treatment.

A Practical Review of the Diagnosis and Management of Small Renal Masses

A Practical Review of the Diagnosis and Management of Small Renal Masses

Teaser: 

Stanley A. Yap,1 Shabbir M.H. Alibhai,2,3Antonio Finelli,1
1Division of Urologic Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 2Institute of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.


Abstract
The incidence of small renal masses (SRMs) has risen steadily over time, and SRMs now represent the majority of newly diagnosed renal lesions. Approximately 80% of newly diagnosed SRMs will be malignant. However, identifying a benign versus malignant lesion non-invasively can be difficult since no distinct imaging characteristics or growth patterns exist between the two. We have witnessed concurrent improvements in treatment strategies for small, localized tumors and have gained a better understanding of their natural history. Along with these changes there has been a shift in the manner in which we diagnose and treat SRMs. Although surgery remains the standard of care, we can now offer a variety of therapies individualized to the patient.
Keywords: kidney cancer, small renal mass, diagnosis, treatment.

A Persistent Lesion on the Chest

A Persistent Lesion on the Chest

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim one non-certified credit per hour for this non-certified educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/mainpro-manual
Teaser: 

Francesca Cheung, MD CCFP, is a family physician with a special interest in dermatology. She received the Diploma in Practical Dermatology from the Department of Dermatology at Cardiff University in Wales, UK. She is practising at the Lynde Centre for Dermatology in Markham, Ontario and works closely with Dr. Charles Lynde, MD FRCPC, an experienced dermatologist. In addition to providing direct patient care, she acts as a sub-investigator in multiple clinical studies involving psoriasis, onychomycosis, and acne.

Abstract
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign and usually self-limited cutaneous condition that classically presents as arciform to annular plaques in a symmetrical and acral distribution. The exact etiology of GA is unknown. Two-thirds of patients with GA are less than 30 years old. GA is recognized based on its characteristic appearance and no specific investigation is necessary. Reassurance and clinical observation may be the treatment of choice for localized and asymptomatic disease. Spontaneous resolution occurs within 2 years in 50% of cases. Persistent lesions may be treated with very potent topical corticosteroids, intralesional corticosteroid injections, or cryotherapy. Use of more toxic treatments are controversial in recalcitrant cases.
Keywords: Granuloma annulare, Overview, Paraneoplastic, Self-limiting, Treatment.

Diagnosis and Management Approaches to Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Diagnosis and Management Approaches to Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Teaser: 

John D. Markman, M.D., Director, Translational Pain Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.
Maria E. Frazer, B.S., Health Project Coordinator, Translational Pain Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.
Pierre S. Girgis, M.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.
Kevin R. McCormick, M.D., Ph.D, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the leading cause of spinal surgery among older Americans, yet more than one-third do not gain significant relief from surgical treatment. The distinct pattern of lower back and leg pain induced by standing and walking associated with LSS is known as neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC). Various treatment options for NIC include surgical interventions as well as pharmacological, biomechanical and conservative therapy (i.e., physical therapy). No specific treatment is associated with guaranteed outcome, which underscores the need to further evaluate the diagnosis and symptoms associated with LSS.
Key words: lumbar spinal stenosis, neuropathic pain, treatment, treadmill testing, epidural steroid injection.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Teaser: 

Erin Dahlke, MD, Dermatology Resident, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Christian A. Murray, MD, FRCPC, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Dermatology, University of Toronto; Co-director of Dermatologic Surgery, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON.

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common, slow-growing malignant skin tumour that only very rarely metastasizes. The main subtypes of BCC are nodular, superficial, and sclerosing. The most important risk factors for the development of BCC include fair skin, extensive sun exposure as a child, past personal history of skin cancer, and advanced age. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human malignancy, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. There are a number of different treatm ent modalities for BCC including topical therapies, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation and curettage, surgical excision, radiotherapy, and Mohs’ micrographic surgery. Treatment should be tailored to the individual situation, and advanced age does not typically alter the management choice or reduce the expectation of an excellent outcome, including cure.
Key words: basal cell carcinoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer, risk factors, epidemiology, treatment.

Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction in Older Adults

Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction in Older Adults

Teaser: 


George A. Heckman, MD, MSc, FRCPC, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.
Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD, FRCPC, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, ON.

Heart failure (HF) is usually associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, but approximately 50% of all patients with HF have a preserved ejection fraction. The mortality and morbidity associated with this condition, which may be the most common form of HF in older persons, is substantial and is on the rise. Currently, there are few evidence-based therapies demonstrated to be beneficial for this condition. The usual therapeutic recommendations consist of the aggressive management of the comorbidities and fluid balance associated with this form of HF. Disease management programs may improve outcomes among older persons with HF and preserved ejection fraction.
Key words: heart failure, diastolic dysfunction, preserved ejection fraction, treatment, clinical outcome.

Hallucinations in Dementia

Hallucinations in Dementia

Teaser: 


Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, PhD, ABPP, Department of Health Promotion, School of Public Health and Herczeg Center on Aging, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, and Department of Health Care Sciences and of Prevention and Community Health, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Approximately 20% of older people with dementia manifest visual or auditory hallucinations. In order to effectively diagnose and treat these individuals, the etiology of hallucinations must be addressed; however, there has been very limited research in this area. There is an association between vision loss and hallucinations, and analyses of case studies suggest other potential etiologies. Accordingly, hallucinations can occur when the person with dementia either misinterprets reality, experiences sensory deprivation, is exposed to inappropriate sensory stimulation, has delirium/medical problems, or when his/her behaviour is misinterpreted due to cultural differences with caregivers. Understanding the etiology of hallucinations will assist in developing an appropriate nonpharmacological treatment, which may improve quality of life.
Key words: hallucinations, dementia, etiology, nonpharmacological, treatment.

After the Fall: The ABCs of Fracture Prevention

After the Fall: The ABCs of Fracture Prevention

Teaser: 

Susan B. Jaglal, PhD, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Chair, Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

A wrist fracture is associated with an increased risk of another fracture and should prompt investigation for osteoporosis in both men and women. If the fracture was caused by low trauma (a fall from a standing height or less), a bone density test should be ordered. If the T score is <–1.5, pharmacological treatment with a bisphosphonate and calcium (1,500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (≥800 IU/d) is recommended. Management should also include balance, posture, and muscle-strengthening exercises and walking, as well as a review of fall-prevention strategies.
Key words: wrist fracture, osteoporosis, diagnosis, treatment, exercise, falls.