There has been a substantial increase in total cases of diabetes mellitus in industrialized countries among older adults. Diabetes mellitus has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. This article discusses the epidemiological evidence for diabetes to predict Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and decline in various domains of cognition. We also address the features of diabetes-related executive dysfunction and its importance in the clinical care of diabetic older adults.
Key words: diabetes mellitus, cognition, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontal executive dysfunction.