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coronary heart disease

Treatment of High-Risk Older Adults with Lipid-Lowering Drug Therapy

Treatment of High-Risk Older Adults with Lipid-Lowering Drug Therapy

Teaser: 


Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, Department of Medicine, Cardiology, Geriatrics, and Pulmonary/Critical Care Divisions, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and observational studies have demonstrated that statins reduce mortality and major cardiovascular events among high-risk older adults with hypercholesterolemia. The Heart Protection Study showed that statins reduced mortality and major cardiovascular events in high-risk persons regardless of the initial level of serum lipids, age, or gender. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III guidelines state that among very high-risk patients a serum LDL cholesterol level of less than 70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/l) is a reasonable clinical strategy, regardless of age. When a high-risk person has hypertriglyceridemia or low serum HDL cholesterol, consideration can be given to combining a fibrate or nicotinic acid with an LDL cholesterol-lowering drug. For moderately high-risk persons (having two or more risk factors and a 10-year risk for CHD of 10-20%) the serum LDL cholesterol should be reduced to less than 100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/l). When LDL cholesterol-lowering drug therapy is used to treat high-risk persons or moderately high-risk persons, the serum LDL cholesterol should be reduced at least 30-40%.
Key words: lipids, statins, lipid-lowering drugs, coronary heart disease, atherosclerotic vascular disease, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides.

Gender and Coronary Heart Disease in Older Adults

Gender and Coronary Heart Disease in Older Adults

Teaser: 


Nahid Azad, MD, Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.
Arlene S. Bierman, MD, MS, FRCPC, Ontario Women’s Health Council Chair in Women’s Health, Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael’s Hospital; Faculties of Medicine and Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for both men and women. Among individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD), there are gender differences in clinical epidemiology, prevalence of risk factors, clinical presentation, and quality and outcomes of care. Older adults and older women in particular are at risk for underdiagnosis and suboptimal management of CHD and its risk factors. Adherence to clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis and management of CHD can improve outcomes of care for older men and women with CHD and narrow gender disparities in clinical outcomes.
Key words: cardiovascular disease, gender, older adults, quality of care, women’s health, coronary heart disease.

Clinical Significance and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia

Clinical Significance and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia

Teaser: 


Patrick Couture,MD, FRCP(C), PhD, Lipid Research Center, Laval University Medical Center, Laval,QC.
Nancy Gilbert, RN, Lipid Research Center, Laval University Medical Center, Laval,QC.

Several lines of evidence suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contribute significantly to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between cardiovascular disease and plasma levels of triglyceride remains complex due to the presence of two major confounders: (1) the inverse relationship between plasma triglyceride levels and highdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol and (2) the heterogeneity in triglyceriderich lipoprotein size, number, and composition between individuals. Plasma apo-B measurement is recommended for patients with high triglyceride levels to identify their risk category.The goals of lipidmodifying therapy for these patients are to reduce the atherogenic lipoprotein number and to increase HDL particle number.
Keywords: triglyceride, lipoprotein, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, cholesterol.

Cardiac Rehabilitation in the Older Population

Cardiac Rehabilitation in the Older Population

Teaser: 


Terence Kavanagh, MD, FRCPC, DSc(Hon), Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine; Professor, Graduate School of Exercise Science, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Coronary heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. For this population cardiac rehabilitation offers an improvement in functional capacity, alleviation of symptoms, enhanced mood state and quality of life, and a modification of coronary risk factors. The components of a comprehensive programme specific to older adults are the same as for younger patients, with exercise training the mainstay. However, the changes that accompany the aging process require some modification in both the aerobic and resistance exercise programmes. Unfortunately, the referral rate of older patients, particularly women, is poor. Hopefully, this could be rectified if physicians come to realize that this segment of the population is the most likely to benefit from cardiac rehabilitation.
Key words: cardiac rehabilitation, aging, exercise training, coronary heart disease, referral patterns.

Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Through Adoption of the Mediterranean Diet

Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Through Adoption of the Mediterranean Diet

Teaser: 

Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, PhD, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
Christos E. Pitsavo, MD, PhD, FESC, FACC, First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece.

The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on human health has been advocated since the Renaissance. There are now several scientific evidences that relate this traditional dietary pattern with the incidence of coronary heart disease, various types of cancer and other diseases. However, only in the past few years have several observational and clinical studies suggested mechanisms by which this traditional diet may affect coronary risk. This review underlines the importance of the Mediterranean dietary pattern in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease.
Key words: Mediterranean diet, risk, coronary heart disease.