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Madison O.L. Rays, Sharon Chung, PhD, Maya Capua, MD, Colin M. Shapiro, MBBCh, PhD, FRCPC,

Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep Centre and Youthdale Treatment Centres, Toronto, ON.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder in which patients stop breathing repeatedly during sleep, and it is linked to a number of serious medical consequences. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. The consequences of OSA are particularly severe in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (AT) is a major factor in the etiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children. Physicians should consider snoring, pauses in breathing while asleep, restless sleep, bizarre sleeping positions, paradoxical chest movements, cyanosis, bedwetting, hyperactivity, and disruptive behaviour in school as possible indications of untreated OSA in children. The presentation of OSA in children differs substantially from that in adults. For example, hyperactivity is often a primary symptom in children but is not a symptom typically found in adults.
Key Words: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), children, adenotonsillar hypertrophy (AT), medical consequences.
The presentation of OSA in children is significantly different than that in adults; hyperactivity can be a primary symptom in children but is not typically found in adults.
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is an indicator of undiagnosed OSA in children and merits a sleep study.
Untreated OSA in children can lead to medical and psychiatric issues.
Adenotonsillectomy, a common treatment for OSA in children with large tonsils, not only reduces or eliminates the OSA, but in most cases improves the associated behavioral problems.
Evidence-based medicine supports the need for children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy to be referred to a sleep specialist to be screened for OSA regardless of the degree of tonsillar enlargement.
The I'm Sleepy questionnaire allows doctors to quickly and easily identify children with a high risk of having OSA.
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