Cerebrovascular disease is a potential cause of vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is not an univocal entity; it encompasses at least four types of dementia: multi-infarct, subcortical, strategic infarct, and posthemorrhage dementia. Vascular dementia does not contain cognitive problems only. There are also noncognitive behavioural alterations. The major noncognitive behavioural situations are depression, anxiety, agitation, delusions, and insomnia. Disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis not only affect the quality of life of a patient but also that of the caregiver. Behavioural disturbances may also contribute to morbidity and are a major cause of institutionalization since they result in inadequate nutrition and sleep and enhance cognitive disruption. Diagnosing depression in the context of vascular dementia is challenging given the overlap of signs and symptoms between depression and dementia. Both disorders can be characterized by apathy and loss of interest, an impaired ability to think, psychomotor agitation, and psychomotor retardation.
Key words: behaviour, subcortical vascular dementia,, vascular dementia, small-vessel dementia.