Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplasm of plasma cells that is characterized by tumour cell tropism of the bone marrow and production of monoclonal immunoglobulins (Ig) detectable in serum and/or urine. It often manifests as one or more of lytic bone lesions, monoclonal protein in the blood or urine, disease in the bone marrow, renal failure, anemia, and hypercalcemia. Better understanding of the biology of myeloma has led to the development of agents, such as bortezomib, CC-5013, and thalidomide, that target the myeloma cell and the bone-marrow microenvironment. Ongoing trials promise to define the roles of new agents, mini-allogeneic transplantation, and maintenance therapy.
Key words: bone marrow, biology, transplant, chemotherapy, multiple myeloma.
Irving E. Salit, MD, Director of Immunodeficiency Clinic, Division of Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital; Associate Professor, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy closely associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). KS occurs in immunocompromised subjects—those with HIV infection or after immunosuppressive therapy—but it also occurs without obvious immune deficiency (older men of Mediterranean origin or in central Africans). The incidence of KS in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has markedly decreased in recent years. Treatment depends on the predisposing condition and the extent of disease. Common management options include no therapy, reversal of immunosuppression, local radiation, and systemic chemotherapy.
Key words: Kaposi’s sarcoma, malignancy, HIV, AIDS, transplant.
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