Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common but frequently undetected and undertreated condition among older adults. Untreated PAD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors results in functional impairment, poor quality of life and increased risk for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. The increased risk for CVD events associated with PAD necessitates raising public awareness of PAD and the potential impact on health, and placing greater emphasis by providers on detection and management of PAD to maximize survival and life quality. This article briefly describes the detection and medical management of PAD, with greater emphasis on lifestyle modification among older adults with PAD.
Key words: vascular disease, cardiovascular disease, risk factor reduction, lifestyle modification.
The metabolic syndrome, though controversial due to lack of a uniform pathophysiological mechanism, is a useful clinical tool for identifying persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It indicates the cumulative cardiometabolic risk exerted by abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high blood pressure. Lifestyle factors, high calorie intake, and less physical activity have been implicated in the causation of the metabolic syndrome, and thus older adults are at particular risk for the development of this syndrome. Current evidence indicates that the components of the metabolic syndrome can be targeted with lifestyle interventions to prevent the complications of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This paper reviews various diagnostic criteria, etiological factors, and lifestyle interventions to combat the metabolic syndrome in order to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults.
Key words: metabolic syndrome, prevention, lifestyle modification, diet, physical activity.
Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In older adults, obesity can exacerbate declining physical function and quality of life that often accompanies aging, and can cause frailty. The value of treatment for obesity in older adults has been under debate because of the uncertain effectiveness of obesity therapies in this population as well as the potentially harmful effects of weight loss. However, current evidence shows that weight-loss treatment improves physical function and quality of life, and also eases the medical complications associated with obesity in older adults. Therefore, moderate weight loss that minimizes muscle and bone loss is recommended for obese older adults who have functional decline or medical complications.
Key words: obesity, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, weight loss, lifestyle modification.
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