Yvonne Y. Chan, MD, 1 Stanley A. Yap, MD, 1Jennifer H. Yang, MD1

1University of California Davis, Department of Urology, Sacramento, CA.


Abstract: Undescended testis is the most common genitourinary anomaly in boys and is found in 2-4% of those born full term and 20-30% of those born premature. Spontaneous descent occurs in 50-70% of cases. Physical exam is critical and sufficient in the diagnosis and characterization of testicular location. As such, imaging is not necessary prior to referral to pediatric urology as it will not affect management. Testicular maldescent impairs spermatogenesis and increases risk for testicular germ cell tumors, so timely diagnosis and intervention are key.
Key Words:undescended testis, cryptorchidism, orchiopexy.

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Undescended testis affects spermatogenesis and increases risk for testicular cancer and infertility.
Initiate workup for disorders of sexual development in cases of bilateral, undescended, and nonpalpable testes.
For cases of congenital undescended testis, refer to pediatric urology if the testis remains undescended by 6 months of age (corrected for gestational age).
Imaging is not necessary prior to referral to pediatric urology.
Patients with bilateral undescended and nonpalpable testicles require DSD workup.
Physical exam is sufficient for determining the location of an undescended testis, and ultrasound is not necessary prior to referral to pediatric urology.
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