A.D. Baines, MD, PhD, FRCPC, Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
This article presents a summary of recent recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of Type 2 diabetes in the elderly. Onset of nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy can be slowed by treatment designed to reach realistic target values for fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Therapy also should minimize the dangers of hypoglycemia. Hepatic and renal function must be monitored when selecting drugs and dosages. Significant reductions in renal function may be associated with serum creatinine within the normal reference range. A stepwise approach to therapy beginning with diet and exercise and proceeding to single and multidrug treatment is outlined. The mode of action, advantages, disadvantages and contraindications for five groups of hypoglycemic agents are summarized.
Key words: Type 2 diabetes, diagnosis, stepped treatment, oral drugs, elderly.