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Back Education: Does it Work for Patients?

Teaser: 

Dr. Julia Alleyne, BHSc(PT), MD, CCFP, Dip. Sport Med MScCH,

Family Physician practising Sport and Exercise Medicine at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network. She is appointed at the University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine as an Associate Clinical Professor.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Back education or “Back Schools” are used both as a method of prevention and, in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation and exercise programs, as a component in treatment of recurrent or persistent low back pain. It is challenging to evaluate the effectiveness of this educational effort. Models have varied from brochures, booklets and simple office conversations to formal scheduled classes. Content has ranged from purely mechanical instruction to complex cognitive behavioural therapy. Essential to success is the ability to integrate the instructions into activities of daily living. The composition of those lessons remains the subject of continuing debate.
Key Words: Back School, education, body mechanics, prevention, pain management.

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2

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Back education programs do not reduce the frequency or severity of future back pain attacks.
The educational message should be consistent, frequent and stress self-management.
Group education is useful but the message must be tailored to the individual.
Information must be integrated into the patient's daily routine.
Back education should be part of rehabilitation and is probably most effective during the sub-acute phase of recovery when the pain is still present but not so distracting that it prevents learning.
Comprehensive back school includes spinal anatomy, instruction in proper body mechanics, individualized pain control techniques plus the recognition and treatment of pain disorder through cognitive behavioural therapy when required.
The back program should follow the precepts of adult education with frequent interaction, problem solving, practical applications and a focus on participation.
A successful back school educates the patient about the benign nature of back pain and provides the tools to transfer knowledge about back hygiene into practice in the patient's life.
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Managing Back Dominant Pain

Managing Back Dominant Pain

Teaser: 

Hamilton Hall, MD, FRCSC,1 Julia Alleyne, BHSc(PT), MD, CCFP, Dip. Sport Med MScCH,2 Yoga Raja Rampersaud, MD, FRCSC,3

1Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto; Medical Director, Canadian Back Institute; Executive Director, Canadian Spine Society, Toronto, ON.
2Associate Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Medical Director, Sport CARE, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON.
3Associate Professor Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Divisions of Orthopaedic and Neurosurgery, University Health Network Medical Director, Back and Neck Specialty Program, Altum Health, Immediate Past President Canadian Spine Society, Toronto, ON.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Back dominant pain is either intensified by flexion or is not aggravated by bending forward. The most common pattern, probably discogenic, subdivides into two groups: one with pain on flexion but relief on extension, the other with pain in both directions. The second pattern has symptoms with extension only. Treatment begins with education about the true benign nature of the problem. Mechanical pain responds to posture adjustment and pattern-specific movement. Medication has a secondary role. Imaging is not required for the responding patient. The inability to detect a pattern or a lack of anticipated response combined with non-mechanical findings indicates the need for appropriate referral.
Key Words:back dominant pain, education, medication, imaging, specialist referral.

HealthPlexus is offering an eCME in support of the Back Pain Management Resource

eCME: The Latest in Back Pain Management

This CME activity offers interactive Videos, Animations, Pre- and Post-test Quizzes and you will be able to download a Certificate of Participation upon completion.

Back Dominant pain can be divided into two presentations: pain that is predominantly reproduced with flexion or pain that is reduced or unaffected by flexion.
The recognition of mechanical low back pain is based on a precise history, a validating physical examination and a positive treatment result.
Referred pain to the leg may occur with back dominant pain but, unlike radicular pain, the neurological examination will be normal.
Facilitating the patient to engage in activity that does not aggravate pain is the key to pain management and recovery.
The goal is control, not cure. Anything that relieves the pain and helps to restore mobility is valuable.
Medication has a limited and secondary role. There is no place for the routine use of narcotics or psychotropic drugs.
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POWER in Osteoporosis: Descriptive Review of a Multidisciplinary Community-Based Prevention and Management Program

POWER in Osteoporosis: Descriptive Review of a Multidisciplinary Community-Based Prevention and Management Program

Teaser: 


Michael Gordon, MD, MSc, FRCPC, FRCP Edin, Medical Program Director, Palliative Care Baycrest Geriatric Health Care System; Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Kayi Li, BHSc, medical student, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Osteoporosis is a systemic disease resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. For optimal prevention, the literature increasingly supports the combined use of education on nutrition, lifestyle, and exercise. Currently, multidisciplinary, multimodal initiatives are rarely implemented in the community. The POWER (Promoting Osteoporosis Wellness through Education, Exercise and Resources) program in Toronto, Ontario, strives to empower individuals with osteoporosis with diverse cultural backgrounds to sustain healthy behaviours for self-management of their condition. This article provides a description of the POWER program philosophy, as well as a preliminary evaluation to assess its benefits and potential for further expansion and adaptation.
Key words: osteoporosis, management program, cultural differences, education, health beliefs.

The Anemia Institute for Research and Education: Treating Anemia Seriously

The Anemia Institute for Research and Education: Treating Anemia Seriously

Teaser: 

Durhane Wong-Rieger, PhD, President, Anemia Institute for Research & Education.

Anemia affects tens of thousands of Canadians, including many older people. While some types of anemia are relatively easy to diagnose and treat, complications such as chronic disease or complex medication regimes can often interfere with diagnosis and management of this condition.

The Anemia Institute for Research & Education (AIRE) is the first and only nonprofit organization in the world committed entirely to generating and sharing knowledge about anemia. AIRE supports patients in understanding anemia, its causes, effects and the available treatment options. The Institute partners with numerous patient and professional groups to facilitate patient education on anemia and blood safety and supply. Furthermore, through a yearly research grant competition, AIRE sponsors numerous anemia research studies. All in all, the Anemia Institute is working hard to ensure that anemia is treated seriously.

For Physicians: Anemia Guidelines for Primary Care
In a 2001 survey of family physicians across Canada, 90% of doctors indicated their interest in clinical practice guidelines on anemia for family practice. The Anemia Institute responded, initiating the development of Anemia Guidelines for Primary Care with MUMS Guidelines Clearinghouse (Medication Use Management Services), to be published in May 2003. The Anemia Guidelines is the fifth book in the Orange Book guideline series published by MUMS. This easy to use, peer-reviewed and fully-referenced book provides diagnostic and treatment guidelines for the full range of anemia conditions (see Table 1 for a selection of topics covered).

A limited number of complimentary copies of the Anemia Guidelines is available from AIRE. To order, please visit www.anemiainstitute.org and go to the Healthcare Professionals section.

For Your Patient: Anemia Educational Tools
The Anemia Institute's series of patient leaflets covers the most common types of anemia. Patient Educational Leaflets include:

  • What is Anemia?
  • What is Hemoglobin?
  • Anemia & Nutrition
  • Anemia & Iron Deficiency
  • Anemia & Cancer
  • Anemia & Kidney Disease
  • Anemia & Surgery
  • Anemia & Hepatitis C
  • Anemia & HIV/AIDS
  • Anemia & Children and Teens.

Anemia Awareness Week is the Institute's yearly campaign to raise awareness of anemia among the general public. This takes place each year during the last week of March. In March 2003, the public were invited to visit numerous hemoglobin screening clinics and anemia display booths in pharmacies and hospitals across Canada. Similar events are planned for Anemia Awareness Week next year, March 22&endash;26, 2004.

Research & Development Fund
The Anemia Institute Research & Development Fund supports research initiatives through a yearly, peer-reviewed grant competition. Projects currently funded include:

  • the role of anemia and red blood cell substitutes in traumatic brain injury;
  • new strategies to treat post-transplant anemia;
  • anemia among the inner city homeless.

More information on the AIRE research grant process, including funding priorities and application procedures, can be found on the Internet at www.anemia-institute.org.

Diet and Education in the Control of Diabetes in the Elderly

Diet and Education in the Control of Diabetes in the Elderly

Teaser: 

Tess Montada-Atin, RN, CDE
Care Leader

Marilyn Mori, RD
Lina Medeiros, MSW
Diabetes Education Centre,
Toronto Western Hospital
University Health Network
Toronto, ON

Diabetes is a chronic illness with significant short and long term complications.1 The Diabetes Education Centre (DEC) at the Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, supports people with diabetes, their family and friends to better understand and manage diabetes. The 1998 Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) for the management of diabetes in Canada, recommends initial and ongoing education for the person with diabetes as part of diabetes care and not just as an adjunct to treatment. Diabetes Education should be recognized as a life long commitment.2 Comprehensive management of diabetes should be planned around an interdisciplinary diabetes health care team,1-3 which can be through a DEC. To learn and use the varied complex skills required, people with diabetes need the support of such a team of expert professionals.1 Interdisciplinary interventions have been shown to improve glycemic control in the elderly. Studies have suggested that a team approach toward older people with diabetes improves blood glucose control, quality of life and adherence to therapy.3

Factors that affect glycemic control are diet, diabetes medications and exercise.