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Common Lumps and Bumps in Children: A Colour-coded Differential

Common Lumps and Bumps in Children: A Colour-coded Differential

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2
Teaser: 

Shahana Nathwani, BHK, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
Joseph M Lam, MD, FRCP(C), Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Associate Member, Department of Dermatology and Skin Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Abstract
Many conditions present as 'lumps and bumps' in the pediatric population. Some follow a benign course and can be safely observed with parental education and reassurance. Others require definitive therapy or carry the potential for serious complications. Understanding and recognizing the different lesions will help guide the care, counseling and management of patients with these common 'lumps and bumps'. This review presents and categorizes common pediatric cutaneous lesions according to colours as a tool to help the general practitioner recognize and remember these lesions.
Keywords: benign; pediatric; tumours; vascular; hemangioma; nevus.

Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2
Teaser: 


Liesel-Ann Meusel1, PhD, Ekaterina Tchistiakova2,3, BSc, William Yuen4,5, BSc, Bradley J Macintosh2,3, PhD, Nicole D Anderson1,6, PhD, and Carol E Greenwood4,5, PhD
1Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, ON. 2HSF Centre for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON. 3Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
4Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied and Evaluative Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, ON. 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. 6Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, and previously unrecognized complications are emerging; namely, cognitive impairment and dementia. The mechanisms that link these factors together are still unknown, but likely result from the interplay of several variables, including vascular change, poor glycemic control, inflammation, and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal overactivity. At present, it is still too early to propose best practices related to the management of diabetes-induced cognitive change. All things considered, however, patients should be aware that proper management of metabolic and vascular complications may minimize the adverse effects of type 2 diabetes on cognitive function and quality of life.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, cognition, dementia, vascular, metabolic
.

Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Teaser: 


Madhuri Reddy, MD, MSc, FRCPC, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine,
University of Toronto, Associate Editor, Geriatrics & Aging, Toronto, ON.

R. Gary Sibbald, BSc, MD, FRCPC (Med), FRCPC (Derm), MACP, DABD, Associate Professor and Director of Continuing Education, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Prevention of diabetic foot wounds is of crucial importance. Diabetic foot wounds are basically pressure ulcers due to improper footwear, and therefore the most critical aspect of prevention is wearing proper shoes, checked regularly by a reputable orthotist. Once foot wounds have occurred in a person with diabetes, proper footwear continues to be
crucial. Also of importance are adequate vascular supply, treatment of infection, and surgical debridement, if necessary. All diabetic foot wounds should be probed in order to evaluate depth. If the wound probes to bone, osteomyelitis should be presumed unless proven otherwise.

Key words: diabetes, wounds, ulcers, vascular, infection.