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neuropathy

A Review of Neuropathic Pain Treatments for the Older Adult

A Review of Neuropathic Pain Treatments for the Older Adult

Teaser: 


The accredited CME learning activity based on this article is offered under the auspices of the CE department of the University of Toronto. Participating physicians are entitled to one (1) MAINPRO-M1 credit by completing this program, found online at www.geriatricsandaging.ca/cme

Hsiupei Chen, MD, Carolina Pain Consultants and Critical Health Systems, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.
Randall P. Brewer, MD, The Spine Institute, Willis Knighton Health System, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.

Neuropathic pain (NP) results from injury or dysfunction in the processing of sensory information in the nervous system. It occurs in a wide array of disease processes and may involve complex management strategies. A comprehensive approach utilizing proven pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies can be used to return function and improve quality of life that has been lost because of pain. In the older population, age-related physiologic and pharmacodynamic alterations, coexisting diseases, and the prevalence of polypharmacy must be considered when selecting therapies for neuropathic pain.
Key words: neuropathic pain, older adults, neuropathy, pain, analgesics.

Screening and Management of Diabetic Microvascular Complications in Older Adults

Screening and Management of Diabetic Microvascular Complications in Older Adults

Teaser: 

Amish Parikh, MD and I. George Fantus, MD, FRCPC, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Microvascular complications of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can be classified into three major categories: retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Numerous studies have consistently shown that the development of complications in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is related to several factors. The most important ones, however, include glycemic control (as measured by hemoglobin A1c) and the duration of diabetes. This article reviews the details of screening and management of diabetic microvascular complications in older adults. It incorporates guidelines from both the Canadian and American Diabetes Associations, as well as reviews of recently published literature.
Key words: diabetes mellitus, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, screening, management.

Numbness and Paresthesias in the Elderly

Numbness and Paresthesias in the Elderly

Teaser: 

Anahita Deboo, MD, Assistant Professor of Neurology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The evaluation of numbness and paresthesias in geriatric patients can present a particular challenge to the primary care physician. Careful sensory examination, in combination with recognition of motor and reflex involvement, will suggest a pattern that aids in neuroanatomic localisation. This article reviews the common patterns seen in polyneuropathies, focal neuropathies, plexopathies and radiculopathies. Central nervous system etiologies also are mentioned. The differential diagnosis and further evaluation of sensory disturbances in the elderly population are discussed.
Key words: paresthesias, numbness, neuropathy, radiculopathy, plexopathy.

Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers -- June 2002

Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers -- June 2002

Teaser: 


Prevention is the Best Form of Care

Madhuri Reddy, MD, Dermatology Day Care (Wound Healing Clinic) Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Care Centre, Toronto, ON, Associate Editor, Geriatrics & Aging.

R. Gary Sibbald, BSc, MD, FRCPC (Med), FRCPC (Derm), MACP, DABD,
Associate Professor and Director of Continuing Education
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Introduction
The most common reason for hospitalization of individuals with diabetes is a foot wound. Persons with diabetes are forty times more likely than are non-diabetics to have a non-traumatic amputation, and the most common precipitating events are infection in a non-healing ulcer and gangrene. Those who undergo a lower-extremity amputation have a 50% chance of amputation in the contralateral limb within five years.1

The systemic nature of diabetes requires a team approach, involving wound care specialists (e.g. physicians, nurses) and foot care specialists (e.g. chiropodists, podiatrists, occupational therapists, pedorthists). Prevention of ulcers is the best form of care for the diabetic foot. Teaching prevention should occur in the setting of comprehensive diabetic care.