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low back pain

A Spinal Control Approach to Back Pain for the Primary Care Provider

Teaser: 

Kristen H. Beange BASc,1 Tianna H. Beharriell BHK,2 Eugene K. Wai MD, MSc, FRCSC,3 Ryan B. Graham MSc, PhD,4

1School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
2School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
3Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
4School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Impaired neuromuscular control of the spine is widely recognized as an important factor in the development of low back pain (LBP). In this review, we summarize contemporary approaches for the assessment of spinal control variables such as stability, stiffness, coordination, and kinematics as well as the most current definitions within the LBP community. We discuss how these assessments can be incorporated into primary clinical care to aid in diagnosis and treatment effectiveness.
Key Words: spinal control, low back pain, kinematics, stability, wearables.

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1. Classification of low back pain (LBP) should continue to be refined to prognosticate and guide treatment.
2. The spinal control model is based on the interaction of the passive (osteoligamentous), active (muscular), and neural feedback subsystems.
3. The spinal control model can be used as a basis to further refine classification and treatment of LBP. Technological advances allows for the development of better kinematic assessments of these subsystems and possible incorporation into clinical care.
1. Identification of specific subgroups of LBP and directing specific treatments has been identified as a future for research and management.
2. The Clinically Organized Relevant Exam (CORE) Back Tool incorporates the identification of patterns of pain based on back or leg dominant, and flexion or extension mediated pain.
3. Spinal fusion for treatment of back dominant LBP (without spondylolisthesis) is not supported by clinical practice guidelines.
4. Within the spinal control model, treatment of LBP should focus on the identification of deficiency in the active (muscular) and neural feedback subsystems and on treatment with spinal muscular strengthening and motor control exercises.
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Obesity, Weight Loss, and Low Back Pain: An Overview for Primary Care Providers—Part 2

Obesity, Weight Loss, and Low Back Pain: An Overview for Primary Care Providers—Part 2

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2
Teaser: 

1,2Darren M. Roffey PhD; 1Simon Dagenais DC, PhD, MSc; 3Ted Findlay DO, CCFP; 4,5Travis E. Marion MD, MSc; 6Greg McIntosh MSc; 7,8Mohammed F. Shamji MD, PhD, FRCSC; 1,2,4,5Eugene K. Wai MD, MSc, FRCSC

1University of Ottawa Spine Program, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, 2Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON,

3
Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 4Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, 5Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, ON, 6CBI Health Group, Toronto, ON, 7Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON,

8Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Abstract

Obesity and low back pain are equally complex medical conditions with multi-factorial etiologies. Their clinical practice guidelines both include recommendations for screening and examination that can be easily implemented. There is sufficient information to compile a framework for the primary care provider, partnering with the patient and appropriate specialists, to manage obesity and low back pain in a structured fashion. Weight loss and exercise are paramount and should be recommended as the first options. Cognitive behavioural therapy, pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery may then be implemented sequentially depending upon the effectiveness of the initial interventions.

Key Words: Obesity, low back pain, exercise, nutrition, cognitive behavioural therapy, bariatric surgery, weight loss, pharmacological, evidence-based guideline.

Obesity, Weight Loss, and Low Back Pain: An Overview for Primary Care Providers—Part 1

Obesity, Weight Loss, and Low Back Pain: An Overview for Primary Care Providers—Part 1

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2
Teaser: 

1,2Darren M. Roffey PhD; 1Simon Dagenais DC, PhD, MSc; 3Ted Findlay DO, CCFP; 4,5Travis E. Marion MD, MSc; 6Greg McIntosh MSc; 7,8Mohammed F. Shamji MD, PhD, FRCSC; 1,2,4,5Eugene K. Wai MD, MSc, FRCSC

1University of Ottawa Spine Program, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, 2Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON,

3
Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 4Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, 5Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, ON, 6CBI Health Group, Toronto, ON, 7Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON,

8Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Abstract

Recognizing that the increasing incidence of obesity coincides with the rising prevalence of LBP, there is growing interest in establishing the relationship between over-weight and back pain. It is likely that any association is multi-factorial and that the connection is not as mechanistically simple as previously believed. Systemic inflammation associated with obesity may be an important contributor. Proposed treatment options vary from cognitive behavioural therapy to bariatric surgery with none yet fully proven. Despite the ambiguity, it appears prudent for primary care providers treating obese patients with LBP to recommend weight loss and exercise.

Key Words: Obesity, low back pain, inflammation, intervertebral disc, multi-factorial, causality, association.

Pharmacological Options in the Management of Low Back Pain

Pharmacological Options in the Management of Low Back Pain

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2
Teaser: 

Dr. Ted Findlay, DO, CCFP, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

Mohammed F. Shamji, MD, PhD, FRCSC, Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract
Low back pain is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical attention. It can be managed with lifestyle modification, or less commonly medical and surgical intervention. Appropriate selection among various pharmacological options mandates an understanding of the underlying symptomatology and the over-riding treatment plan and objectives. The range of potential medications is substantial: over-the-counter analgesics include acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and weak opioid combinations including codeine or tramadol. More potent versions of many of the same components are available on prescription, commonly employing stronger opioids either singly or in a combination analgesic. When the pain involves either chronic or neuropathic features, other classes of medications, including anti-epileptic drugs and anti-depressants, may be appropriate.
Key Words: low back pain, acute, chronic, neuropathic pain, nociceptive pain, medications.