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clinical presentation

Referral Criteria for Non-Emergent Spinal Symptoms in the Neck and Low Back: A Survey of Canadian Spine Surgeons

Teaser: 

Yoga Raja Rampersaud, MD, FRCSC,1 Dr. Hamilton Hall, MD, FRCSC,2

1Associate Professor Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Divisions of Orthopaedic and Neurosurgery University Health Network Medical Director, Back and Neck Specialty Program, Altum Health, Past President Canadian Spine Society.
2is a Professor in the Department of Surgery at the University of Toronto. He is the Medical Director, CBI Health Group and Executive Director of the Canadian Spine Society in Toronto, Ontario.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: The majority of the patients referred for surgical consultation are not candidates for surgery. Appropriate operative candidates endure unnecessary and potentially detrimental delays in obtaining their surgery while the rest waste time waiting to be told that surgery is not the answer. The Canadian Spine Society surveyed its membership to establish a set of practical surgical referral recommendations for non-emergent spinal problems. The results support referrals of patients with leg or arm dominant pain but, in the absence of a significant structural abnormality, discourage referring patients with neck or back dominant symptoms.
Key Words: spine surgery, indications, referral, clinical presentations, non-emergent.

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There is no universally acceptable ideal candidate, absolute indication or unqualified contraindication for elective spinal surgery.
Referral is recommended most often for patients who have constant arm or leg dominant pain.
Patients who have untreated neck or back dominant pain are not appropriate surgical referrals.
Surgeons insistence on an image or refusal to see a suitable patient who rejects surgery reflect the excessive demand on their time, which can be relieved with proper referral.
The recommendation for referral is highest when the patient has had aappropriate non-operative treatment: well supervised physical therapy, suitable medication, effective education and successful lifestyle modification.
Spine related arm and leg dominant pain are usually the result of specific nerve root pathologies and therefore are more likely amenable to surgical intervention than back or neck pain which are generally multifactorial.
Patients with disabling or progressive neurological deficits should be referred early; patients with little or no pain and with no functional limitation related to the neurological deficit are not recommended for referral.
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Aortic Dissection in Older Adults

Aortic Dissection in Older Adults

Teaser: 


George D. Oreopoulos MD, MSc, FRCS(C), Vascular Surgeon, University Health Network; Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Aortic dissection is the most common vascular emergency involving the aorta. Aortic dissection may present with a variety of clinical features and must be considered in order to avoid delay in diagnosis. Early CT scanning allows for the diagnosis to be confirmed and for the extent of the dissection to be determined. While proximal dissections require early surgery to prevent fatal complications, the initial treatment of distal dissections remains medical therapy with surgery or endovascular therapies being reserved for medical failures or for patients who develop specific complications. Newer endovascular treatments may ultimately alter the initial approach to distal dissections although this remains an area of controversy.
Key words: aortic dissection, clinical presentation, medical therapy, endovascular treatment, malperfusion syndromes.

Multiple System Atrophy: An Update

Multiple System Atrophy: An Update

Teaser: 

Felix Geser, MD, PhD, Clinical Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.
Gregor K. Wenning, MD, PhD, Clinical Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by various combinations of parkinsonian, autonomic, cerebellar, or pyramidal signs and pathologically by cell loss, gliosis, and a-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in several brain and spinal cord structures. The clinical recognition of MSA has improved, and the recent consensus diagnostic criteria have been widely established in the research community as well as in movement disorders clinics. Although the diagnosis of this condition is largely based on clinical expertise, several investigations have been proposed in the last decade to assist in early differential diagnosis. Symptomatic therapeutic strategies are still limited.
Key words: multiple system atrophy, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.